Gender-based violence GBV refers tornviolence directed against individuals onrnthe basis of their sex or gender identityrnresulting in psychological physical or sexualrntrauma either directly or indirectly WHOrn2014. The key forms of GBV are sexualrnphysical psychological or emotional violencernCampbell 2002.rnGBV is one of the most prevalent and underreported human rights violations globally.rnGBV is a worldwide public health problemrnposing serious problems in human health andrnthe burden is higher in developing countriesrnPallitto et al. 2006 Garca-Moreno andrnPallitto 2006. GBV transcends throughrnculture socio-economic class or religionrnUSAID IGWG PRB 2010 Abrahams etrnal. 2014.
The study therefore endeavoredrnto assess the influence of DSU on GBVrnamong intimate partners IPs in Kenya
The study utilized a cross-section designrntargeting the population aged 15-64 years.rnThe study was conducted in August 2021
s. Findings on GBV experience in lastrnthe last one year showed that psychologicalrnviolence was the most commonly perpetratedrnform of GBV among IPs with a prevalencernof 33.3 followed by economic violencern16.6 physical violence 15.1 and lastlyrnsexual violence 7.1. Analysis of risk factorsrnshowed that region gender education andrnmonthly income were significantly associatedrnwith physical violence age and educationrnwere associated with psychological violencernreligion was significantly associated withrnsexual violence and gender employmentrnand education were significantly associatedrnwith economic violence among IPs. Resultsrnalso showed that past month use of alcoholrntobacco khat and cannabis were associatedrnwith physical violence alcohol tobacco andrnkhat use were associated with psychologicalrnviolence alcohol tobacco and khat use werernassociated with sexual violence and alcoholrnand tobacco use were associated withrneconomic violence. The study demonstratesrnthe role of DSU towards aggravating thernproblem of all forms of GBV among IPs. Thernstudy therefore underscores the importancernof DSU demand reduction and supplyrnsuppression interventions and programs asrnintegral measures for the control of GBV.
The study reveals worrying rates ofrnemotional physical psychological and sexualrnviolence in the general population among IPsrndespite the robust interventions to eradicaternGBV including continued public educationrnand awareness programs. This is indicativernof a missing link in the programming andrnimplementation of interventions designed tornaddress the chronic problem of IPV. An indepth analysis provided evidence on the rolernof DSU towards aggravating the problem ofrnall forms of GBV among IPs. The study alsornshowed that beyond exposure to alcohol otherrnsubstances especially khat and cannabis werernpotential risk factors for GBV. These resultsrnmay therefore explain the shortcomingsrnfacing GBV intervention programs leading tornsustained high prevalence rates of GBV.rnUnusual findings also revealed that sexualrnviolence among IPs was no longer a femalerndominated problem with equally more menrnemerging as victims of this form of GBV.rnDSU is a growing problem in Kenya affectingrnmore men than women. It is thereforernplausible to conclude that the gender powerrndynamics are equally likely to change as arnresult of DSU consequently negating therntraditionally appreciated gender normsrnespecially in DSU prone settings. The studyrntherefore underscores the importance of DSUrndemand reduction and supply suppressionrninterventions and programs as integralrnmeasures for the control of GBV