Non-tuberculous mycobacteria NTMs arernubiquitous free-living environmental saprophyticrnmicroorganisms. NTMs belong to the genus Mycobacterium whichrnincludes Mycobacterium tuberculosis MTB. NTMs have lately beenrna major cause of pulmonary disease PD in immuno-compromisedrnindividuals including HIV-1 patients. NTMs and MTB appearrnsimilar based on microscopy radiology and clinical symptomsrnconsequently this may lead to misdiagnosis.
This study sought tornestablish the prevalence of NTM pulmonary disease in HIV-1rnpatients presumed to have pulmonary tuberculosis
A cross-sectional analytical laboratory study designrnwas used targeting 617 adult HIV-1 infected patients presentingrnwith presumptive pulmonary TB at Bungoma County HospitalrnComprehensive Care Clinic in Western Kenya between July 2021 tornJune 2022.
A total of 75 12.2 4.6 -9.8 CI of the participantsrnpresented with presumptive MTB and had TB-like symptoms whilern542 87.8 12.5 -30.7 CI were negative. Additionally 56 9.1rnwere infected with NTMs. HIV-positive participants had arnsignificantly higher prevalence of NTMs 62 11.8 5.6 -9.2 CIrncompared to 2 2.1 0.4 -1.8 CI. In HIV study participantsrnP0.0001. M. avium was the most prevalent NTM 2533.3rnfollowed by M. fortuitum 20 26.7. A significant number of thernisolates were M. tuberculosis 10 13.3 as well as M. kansasii 8rn10.7.
Altogether thesernfindings suggest a high prevalence of NTMPDrnamong HIV-1 patients assumed to havernpulmonary TB. This points to a possibility ofrnmisdiagnoses in low-resource settings.rnThere seems to be a high prevalence ofrnNTMPD in HIV-1 patients which is assumed tornbe pulmonary TB based on clinical presentationrnand radiology thought to be TB-like symptoms.