Kenyas mining industry is dominated by non-metallic mineralsrnsuch as soda ash fluorspar kaolin and some gemstones. Thesernminerals represent a small percentage of the Gross DomesticrnProduct GoK 2015. Kenya has proven deposits of titanium goldrnand coal and is estimated to hold significant deposits of copperrnniobium manganese and rare earth minerals. The local share ofrnmining revenue helps to diversify and expand the economy OxfordrnBusiness Group 2014. However Kenya needs to attract investorsrnfrom the mining industry to boost economic development. Therncountry has enacted mining law which is envisioned to protect thernenvironment ensure compliance with regulations and standards inrnthe sector and lead to the equitable benefit sharing of proceedsrnfrom mining resources in order to improve the welfare of thernpeople living in mining areas GoK 2016. The constitution of Kenyarn2010 GoK 2010 declares that every person is entitled to a cleanrnand healthy environment and the current legal framework established a robust institutional framework to manage and protect thernenvironment and the welfare of each person. Sectoral growth hasrnbeen stunted by low levels of compliance with regulations andrnpolicies and this has decreased the socio-economic and environmental benefits of the sector in the country. There is little regard forrnimproved health and safety environmental sustainability and thernsocial wellbeing of workers. Abandoned mining sites and inadequate rehabilitation of the sites have consequently createdrndegraded physical environments with the potential for adverserneffects on the welfare of workers especially women.rnWomen are directly or indirectly engaged in mining activities inrnmany countries in the world despite the plethora of challengesrnfacing them in the sector Hinton Viega Beinhoft 2003. Miningrnis the weakest driver of development in the coastal regionrncontributing only 2 GoK 1999 to the economic developmentrnwith the main economic activities being tourism ports and shipping fisheries and agriculture. Various types of minerals are foundrnclose to the Kenyan coast some of which in significant economicrnquantities and only a few of these are being exploited GoK 2015.rnSalt coral rock titanium manganese barites gypsum iron ore andrngemstones are some of the extractive mineral deposits that exist inrneconomic quantities in the mineral ore belt of Taita Taveta Countyrnwith the potential to boost economic development Taita TavetarnCounty Government 2013. The mining industry in the county isrna significant driver of development as it contributes to the perrncapita income of the population through the creation of job opportunities and livelihoods as well as infrastructure development.rnThe industry creates a wealth of opportunities that the countysrngovernment can rely on for wealth creation and socio-economicrndevelopment The mining sector is dominated by artisanal and small scalernmines with 3e5 percent of women constituting the total miningrnworkforce in Taita Taveta County Taita Taveta County Governmentrn2013 Rop 2014 Anyona Rop 2015. Artisanal mining relies onrnphysical menial labour which can be too strenuous for manyrnwomen. The violation of the rights of women and environmentalrndegradation associated with mining activities create an unfavourable environment International Institute for Environment andrnDevelopment WBCSD 2003 for the active participation ofrnwomen in the mining industry. This study aims to establish whatrnthe socio-economic implications of the mining sector on womenrnare and create awareness of environmental integrity and femalernparticipation in the mining sector in the Kasugai mining area inrnTaita Taveta County through a Participatory Action Research PARrnapproach. This study empowered women to understand the challenges of artisanal mining and to develop home-grown interventions to enhance womens participation to the improvementrnof the welfare of women and the integrity of the environment inrnmining areas.
Publication Date: 08.Oct.2026