It has been widely acclaimed that the respiratory tractrnis the most frequent site of infection as it comes intorndirect contact with the physical environment and isrnexposed to airborne microorganisms such as virusesrnbacteria fungi and parasites
This study aimed at determining the prevalence of bacterial agents causing upper respiratory tractrninfections and their susceptibility patterns to commonly used antibiotics among outpatients in Kitui DistrictrnHospital.
A total of 237 throat swabs were collected between November 2012 to April 2013 and innoculated ontornBlood agar MacCkonkey agar and Chocolate agar then incubated at 37 oC for 24 hours. Colony morphology andrnstandard biochemical tests were performed for identification and confirmation of the isolates based on their Gramrnstaining and cultural characteristics. Antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of the bacteria to antibioticswasrndetermined byKirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. P values of 0.05 were considered to have clinical andrnepidemiological significance.
Pathogens were isolated in 95.4 of the samples collected out of this 5 were mixed cultures involvingrnCandia albicans and either viridans group streptococci or Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteria isolated were S.rnaureus with the highest prevalence 44.3 followed by viridans group streptococci 32.5 and Streptococcusrnpyogenes 13.5. Resistance of bacterial pathogens to antibiotics in Kitui district hospital was highest in viridansrngroup streptococci 48.2 followedby Staphylococcus aureus 40.5 whileStreptococcus pyogenes had the leastrnresistance 28.1 and there were no cases of multi-drug resistance.
The rate of antibiotic resistance was significantly high and proper interventions shouldbe put in placernby the relevant government ministry to prevent these infections and their complications.